Participants were eligible if they 1 reported being at least 18 years old at the time of the study, 2 identified as male and API, and 3 reported ever having had sex with men. Sexual positioning was assessed using the following item: Sexual attraction was assessed using one item, based on Chae and Yoshikawa SDO Pratto et al. SDO is an individual difference variable that has been demonstrated to have high construct validity across nations and cultures worldwide e.
Higher scores indicated stronger preferences or proclivity for social hierarchy and dominance. To examine whether sexual positioning differed by participant characteristics, chi square tests of independence were performed where expected cell counts were sufficient.
To test the second and third hypotheses, an analysis of variance ANOVA was performed with participants with complete data to examine whether SDO varied as a function of sexual positioning top, versatile, bottom, do not apply and race-based attraction API men, non-API men, no race-based preference. The mean age of the sample was Key demographic information was obtained at screening Table 1.
Chi square tests of independence found no significant differences in sexual positioning by participant characteristics.
Table 2 presents the results supporting the first and second hypotheses. Table 2 also presents the results supporting the third hypothesis. As shown in Fig. In contrast, differences between sexual positioning were sharpest among those attracted to a race other than their own or who reported not being attracted to any particular race.
The present study examined how personal preferences for social hierarchy and dominance underlie sexual preferences in a group of racial minority gay men in the United States. Second, the main effect of race-based sexual attraction on SDO indicated that a stronger preference for social hierarchy and dominance was associated with attraction to non-APIs i. Among API men with no race-based preferences, preference for social hierarchy and dominance was the weakest. Finally, the significant interaction between sexual positioning and race-based attraction indicated that the relationship between SDO and sexual positioning differed depending on whether men had any race-based preferences for sexual partners, and if they did, whether they were attracted to members of their own racial group APIs or non-APIs.
That is, sexual positioning preferences for top, bottom, versatile, or none corresponded with decreasing preferences for hierarchy and dominance only among those who would likely embrace hierarchical roles in the first place. For those who are likely to reject hierarchical roles and relationships i.
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These patterns of relationships highlight the social psychological processes involved in how API gay men negotiate their sexual preferences. For racial minority men who encounter negative sentiments toward their racial group within the gay community, their own personal proclivity for social hierarchy or egalitarianism matters in whether they accept or reject such notions to influence their sexual preferences.
As shown in this study, preferring the top sexual positioning to other positioning was associated with higher SDO scores indicating stronger preferences for social hierarchy and dominance relative to preferring the bottom or versatile positioning. Consistent with past work, repudiating sexual positioning i.
By demonstrating how SDO explains differences in sexual preferences, the present study introduced this social psychological individual difference variable as an elucidating factor in understanding sexuality among gay men. Individuals who prefer social hierarchy will likely employ strategies, roles, and stereotypes that enhance hierarchy and maintain the status quo, whereas individuals who oppose hierarchy are likely to enact strategies, roles, and stereotypes that attenuate hierarchy and reject the status quo e. Thus, because high-SDO individuals are those who tend to endorse social hierarchies, high-SDO API gay men should be expected to internalize and prefer roles, behaviors, and beliefs that maintain race-based social hierarchies.
These men may prefer to socialize within non-API e.
Because low-SDO individuals prefer egalitarian relationships, low-SDO API gay men should be expected to actively reject roles, behaviors, and beliefs that maintain race-based social hierarchies. Instead, low-SDO API gay men might actively engage in alternative strategies to build resiliency, empowerment, and community affirming of their group e.
There were several limitations to the current study. Second, our sexual positioning variable measured the way men labeled themselves in terms of their positional identity, but this can certainly be different from their actual behavior. Indeed, self-reported bottoms were the smallest group, suggesting that there may be discrepancies in labeling and sexual behavior. The cross-sectional design of the study did not allow for the examination of actual sexual behaviors regardless of sexual preferences.
Finally, participant was recruited using non-representative sampling. Future research focusing on sexual preferences with larger, more nationally representative API gay men samples is warranted to replicate and extend this pattern of findings.
By drawing upon decades of research on intergroup relations, the current work offers insights into racialized sexual dynamics within gay male culture in the United States. Our findings concerning SDO and race-based sexual attraction highlight the importance of understanding racial dynamics and their link to power concerning sexual negotiation for a particular group of gay men of color.
Future work should extend current findings to examine the specific race-based sexual partnerships and positioning behavior among high- and low-SDO API men in order to better elucidate processes that may place them at a power disadvantage within sexual relationships with other men and to consider the implications of such work for HIV risk reduction strategies. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Arch Sex Behav. Author manuscript; available in PMC Apr Judy Y. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author.
The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Arch Sex Behav. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Introduction There is a body of work demonstrating the prominent role that race plays in the sexual preferences of gay men living in the United States e. The Present Study Individuals who accept the prevailing status quo notions may be likely to internalize race-based notions about their group and to accept existing hierarchical social roles and dominant-subordinate relationships. Measures Sexual positioning was assessed using the following item: Data Analyses To examine whether sexual positioning differed by participant characteristics, chi square tests of independence were performed where expected cell counts were sufficient.
Results The mean age of the sample was Open in a separate window. Discussion The present study examined how personal preferences for social hierarchy and dominance underlie sexual preferences in a group of racial minority gay men in the United States.
Limitations There were several limitations to the current study. Future Research By drawing upon decades of research on intergroup relations, the current work offers insights into racialized sexual dynamics within gay male culture in the United States. Perceived group devaluation, depression, and HIV-risk behavior among Asian gay men. Health Psychology. Strategies of managing racism and homophobia among US ethnic and racial minority men who have sex with men.
Age and race mixing patterns of sexual partnerships among Asian men who have sex with men: Implications for HIV transmission and prevention. The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men. Journal of Sex Research. The impact of homophobia, poverty, and racism on the mental health of gay and bisexual Latino men: To find out more or to make an appointment to get tested in Sydney, please visit www.
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